1. Contact National Organizations Who Can Help
Numerous national organizations provide information, tools, and support, including the American Library Association, the National Coalition Against Censorship, and the American Booksellers Foundation for Freedom of Expression. Click here for contact information and Web site addresses for these and other censorship experts.

2. Know the First Amendment

Freedom of speech is a powerful tool supported by law that protects your rights and the rights of your readers. Click here to download a printable copy of the First Amendment.

3. Be Familiar with the Definition of Intellectual Freedom

Intellectual freedom is the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. For a fuller analysis and defense of this right, read the Intellectual Freedom and Censorship Q & A here.

4. Research Past Cases

Over the years many books have been challenged. Responses to these challenges are archived on several Web sites, including Use these past examples to support your defense.


1. The American Booksellers Foundation for Freedom of Expression (ABFFE) is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to booksellers who are faced with book challenges as well as subpoenas, search warrants, and other demands for customer information. In case of First Amendment emergency, please call ABFFE at (212) 587-4025 from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. EST, Monday through Friday. During the evenings and weekends, call (800) 727-4203.

2. If faced with a challenge, you don’t need to defend it alone. Recruit allies in your cause; alert the local media to the challenge. Local libraries and other local bookstores may also be a source of support as there is a good chance they too may be under fire. (Click here for a sample letter to the editor.)

3. Set up discussion groups inviting consumers, booksellers, and educators to share their thoughts and views on specific titles and their debatable topics. (See Talking About Banned Books page.)

4. The best defense is often a good offense. Celebrate the First Amendment throughout the year, but especially during Banned Books Week (September 27–October 3, 2015). The poster, staff buttons, easel, and bookmarks in this kit can provide the foundation for a table or window display. Discuss the issues and objectives of Banned Books Week with your staff, especially new employees.


1. When faced with a challenge to a book in your collection, explain your selection process—and the legal protection of that policy—to the complainant. Advice from the ALA:

Each library has its own selection and collection development policies. . . . Selection is an inclusive process, in which librarians seek materials that will provide a broad range of viewpoints and subject matter. This means that while library collections have thousands of items families want, like and need, they also will have materials that some parents may find offensive to them or inappropriate for their children.

Because an item is selected does not mean the librarian endorses or promotes it. He or she is simply helping the library to fulfill its mission of providing information from all points of view. (Source:

2. As public institutions, libraries cannot discriminate based on age, sex, race, or any other characteristic. Therefore, a library cannot legally restrict access to materials based on age—a common request of concerned adults in relation to children’s material.

3. Reach out to your local community and the local media. The library is a public institution and their goal is to serve the people. Incorporate the public because the books in your collection belong to all citizens.


1. Know the full substance of the book you are assigning or reading aloud. Be ready to discuss controversial subjects with your students and be prepared to address parents’ concerns. Develop a written rationale to articulate the reasons for using a particular literary work in the classroom. According to the NCTE:

Rationale development should be a part of thoughtful planning for classroom instruction. If we have not reflected on the whys of what we teach, we will be unprepared to meet the needs and challenges of our students and to respond to potential complaints, either from parents or from others in the community who seek to influence the curriculum. . . . (Source:

2. Provide parents with a copy of the written rationale, as proof of how the title in question fits into the curriculum. If a parent raises a challenge, advise them to read the entire book, and explain the danger of interpreting language or actions outside of the context of the story.

3. Talk to other teachers, librarians, guidance counselors, principals, and the board of education to explain the situation. Getting their support will make a big difference—multiple voices are louder than one.

4. Be familiar with your material selection policy, including local criteria, the methods for choosing materials, and who selects materials. Know your school’s method for dealing with complaints. Make sure the entire school staff is aware of the policy for handling challenges and will strictly adhere to these policies.