MIDDLE EAST HISTORY TIMELINE

1800 B.C.E. Tradition holds that Abraham migrates from present-day Iraq to present-day Israel
1000 B.C.E – (approximately) The rise of the House of David, and the reign of his son, King Solomon
586 B.C.E. The fall of the first Jewish Temple, and the exile of the Jews to Babylon
539 B.C.E. Persian ruler Cyrus the Great returns the Jews to the land of Israel.
520 B.C.E. Second Temple built in Jerusalem.
331 B.C.E. Alexander the Great conquers the land of Israel
166-160 B.C.E. Maccabean-led Jewish revolt against Greek-Syrian domination of Israel
63 B.C.E. Rome takes over land of Israel
66 C.E. Beginning of the Jewish Revolt against Roman rule
70 C.E. Jerusalem falls to Rome; the Second Temple is destroyed; the 1,900-year dispersion of the Jews begins
136 C.E. The emperor Hadrian renames Judea “Palestina” as a way of erasing Jewish identity of the land of Israel
315 C.E. Emperor Constantine embraces Christianity, formerly a breakaway sect of Judaism
620 C.E. The prophet Muhammad introduces Islam on the Arabian peninsula.
660 C.E. Muslims begin building al-Aksa Mosque and Dome of the Rock on the site of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem
1095 C.E. The first Crusade begins. Jews are slaughtered throughout Europe
1187 C.E. The Muslim leader Saladin retakes Jerusalem from the Crusaders
1492 C.E. The Jews are expelled from Spain
1654 C.E. The first Jews arrive in New York
1867 C.E. The German journalist Wilhelm Marr coins the term “anti-Semitism” as a euphemism for “Jew-hatred.” Marr was a leader of Germany’s anti-Semitic movement
1896 Theodore Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, publishes “The Jewish State”
1903 Kishinev massacre speeds the emigration of Jews from Russia, to America and Palestine
1917 The British take Palestine from the Ottoman Empire, and issue the Balfour Declaration, which looks favorably on the establishment of a Jewish homeland; Jewish migration to Palestine continues
1929 Jews in Hebron and other towns in Palestine are massacred by Arab rioters
1933 Adolf Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany
1939-1945 Six million Jews murdered by the Nazis
1947 the United Nations votes to partition into two parts, one Jewish, the other Arab. The Jews accept partition, the Arabs reject it.
1948 The Jewish community in Palestine declares the creation of the independent state of Israel; Arabs attack, but are repulsed. In the fighting, 700,000 Arabs are expelled or flee their homes.
1967 The Six-Day-War. Israel pre-empts a combined Arab attack, and conquers the West Bank, Gaza, Sinai and the Golan Heights. Soon after, Israeli settlement of Palestinian territory begins.
1973 Arab states launch a surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur. Israel beats back attack after significant losses
1979 Egypt signs peace treaty with Israel
1982 Israel launches war against the Palestine Liberation Organization in Lebanon.
1987 First Palestinian Uprising, or Intifada, begins
1991 Iraq attacks Israel during Gulf War
1993 Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and P.L.O. leader Yasser Arafat initiate Oslo peace process
1995 Rabin is assassinated by Jewish extremist
2000 At Camp David summit, Israelis offer Palestinians state on most of West Bank and Gaza. Arafat rejects offer, and second Intifada erupts
2005 Prime Minister Ariel Sharon unilaterally withdraws Jewish settlers from Gaza
2006 Second Lebanon War. Shiite terror group Hezbollah attacks Israeli positions; Israel responds with land invasion and aerial bombardment.