THE WESTERN PLAINS of New South Wales are grasslands. Their vast expanse flows for many hundreds of miles beyond the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee rivers until the desert takes over and sweeps inland to the dead heart of the continent. In a good season, if the eyes are turned to the earth on those plains, they see a tapestry of delicate life-not the luxuriant design of a book of hours by any means, but a tapestry nonetheless, designed by a spare modern artist. What grows there hugs the earth firmly with its extended system of roots above which the plant life is delicate but determined. After rain there is an explosion of growth. Nut-flavored green grass puts up the thinnest of green spears. Wild grains appear, grains which develop bleached gold ears as they ripen. Purple desert peas weave through the green and gold, and bright yellow bachelor's buttons cover acres at a time, like fields planted with mustard. Closest to the earth is trefoil clover, whose tiny, vivid green leaves and bright flowers creep along the ground in spring, to be replaced by a harvest of seed-filled burrs in autumn-burrs which store within them the energy of the sun as concentrated protein. At the edges of pans of clay, where the topsoil has eroded, live waxy succulents bearing bright pink and purple blooms, spreading like splashes of paint dropped in widening circles on the earth.
Above the plants that creep across the ground are the bushes, which grow wherever an indentation in the earth, scarcely visible to the eye, allows for the concentration of more moisture from the dew and the reluctant rain. There is the ever-present round mound of prickly weed, which begins its life a strong acid green with hints of yellow, and then is burnt by the sun or the frost to a pale whitish yellow. As it ages, its root system weakens so that on windy days the wind will pick it out of the earth and roll it slowly and majestically about like whirling suns in a Van Gogh painting. Where the soil contains limestone, stronger bushes grow, sometimes two to three feet high, with the delicate narrow-leaved foliage of arid climates, bluish green and dusty grey in color, perfectly adapted to resist the drying sun. Where the soil is less porous and water will lie for a while after rain, comes the annual saltbush, a miraculous silvery-grey plant which stores its own water in small balloonlike round leaves and thrives long after the rains have vanished. Its sterner perennial cousin, which resembles sagebrush, rises on woody branches and rides out the strongest wind.
Very occasionally, where a submerged watercourse rises a little nearer the surface of the earth, a group of eucalyptus trees will cluster. Worn and gnarled by wind and lack of moisture, they rise up on the horizon so dramatically they appear like an assemblage of local deities. Because heat and mirages make them float in the air, they seem from the distance like surfers endlessly riding the plains above a silvery wave. The ocean they ride is blue-grey, silver, green, yellow, scarlet, and bleached gold, highlighting the red clay tones of the earth to provide a rich palette illuminated by brilliant sunshine, or on grey days a subdued blending of tones like those observed on a calm sea.
The creatures that inhabit this earth carry its colors in their feathers, fur, or scales. Among its largest denizens are emus, six-foot-high flightless birds with dun-grey feathers and tiny wings, and kangaroos. Kangaroos, like emus, are silent creatures, two to eight feet tall, and ranging in color from the gentlest dove-grey to a rich red-brown. Both species blend with their native earth so well that one can be almost upon them before recognizing the familiar shape. The fur of the wild dogs has the familiar yellow of the sunbaked clay, and the reptiles, snakes and goannas, look like the earth in shadow. All tread on the fragile habitat with padded paws and claws which leave the roots of grass intact.
On the plains, the earth meets the sky in a sharp black line so regular that it seems as though drawn by a creator interested more in geometry than the hills and valleys of the Old Testament. Human purposes are dwarfed by such a blank horizon. When we see it from an island in a vast ocean we know we are resting in shelter. On the plains, the horizon is always with us and there is no retreating from it. Its blankness travels with our every step and waits for us at every point of the compass. Because we have very few reference points on the spare earth, we seem to creep over it, one tiny point of consciousness between the empty earth and the overarching sky. Because of the flatness, contrasts are in a strange scale. A scarlet sunset will highlight grey-yellow tussocks of grass as though they were trees. Thunderclouds will mount thousands of feet above one stunted tree in the foreground. A horseback rider on the horizon will seem to rise up and emerge from the clouds. While the patterns of the earth are in small scale, akin to complex needlepoint on a vast tapestry, the sky is all drama. Cumulus clouds pile up over the center of vast continental spaces, and the wind moves them at dramatic pace along the horizon or over our heads. The ever-present red dust of a dry earth hangs in the air and turns all the colors from yellow through orange and red to purple on and off as the clouds bend and refract the light. Sunrise and sunset make up in drama for the fact that there are so few songbirds in that part of the bush. At sunrise, great shafts of gold precede the baroque sunburst. At sunset, the cumulus ranges through the shades of a Turner seascape before the sun dives below the earth leaving no afterglow, but at the horizon, tongues of fire.
Except for the bush canary and the magpie, the birds of this firmament court without the songs of the northern forest. Most are parrots, with the vivid colors and rasping sounds of the species. At sunset, rosella parrots, a glorious rosy pink, will settle on trees and appear to turn them scarlet. Magpies, large black and white birds, with a call close to song, mark the sunrise, but the rest of the day is the preserve of the crows, and the whistle of the hawk and the golden eagle. The most startling sound is the ribald laughter of the kookaburra, a species of kingfisher, whose call resembles demonic laughter. It is hard to imagine a kookaburra feeding St. Jerome or accompanying St. Francis. They belong to a physical and spiritual landscape which is outside the imagination of the Christian West.
The primal force of the sun shapes the environment. With the wind and the sand it bakes and cleanses all signs of decay. There is no cleansing by water. The rivers flow beneath the earth, and rain falls too rarely. In the recurring cycles of drought the sand and dust flow like water, and like the floods of other climates they engulf all that lies in their path. Painters find it hard to capture the shimmer of that warm red earth dancing in the brilliant light, and to record at the same time the subtle greens and greys of the plants and trees. Europeans were puzzled by the climate and vegetation, because the native eucalyptus trees were not deciduous. The physical blast of the sun in hot dry summers brought plants to dormancy. Slow growth followed in autumn, and a burst of vigorous growth after the brief winter rainy season. Summer was a time of endurance for all forms of life as moisture ebbed away and the earth was scorched. Winter days were like summer in a northern climate, and spring meant the onset of unbroken sunshine. On the plains, several winters might go by without a rainy season, and every twenty years or so the rain might vanish for a decade at a time. When that happened, the sun was needed to cleanse the bones of dead creatures, for the death toll was immense.
The oldest known humans on the continent left their bones on the western plains. Nomadic peoples hunted over the land as long as forty thousand years ago. They and their progeny left behind the blackened stones of ovens, and the hollowed flat pieces of granite they carried from great distances to grind the native nardoo grain. Their way of life persisted until white settlers came by bullock wagon, one hundred and thirty years ago, to take possession of the land. They came to graze their flocks of sharp-hooved sheep and cattle, hoping to make the land yield wealth. Other great inland grasslands in Argentina, South Africa, or North America were settled by pastoralists and ranchers who used forced labor: Indian peons, Bantus, or West African slaves. On Australia's great plains there were no settled native people to enslave. The settlers moved onto the plains long after the abandonment of transportation from Great Britain, the last form of forced labor available in the Antipodes. As a result, the way of life that grew up for white settlers was unique.
A man could buy the government leasehold for hundreds of thousands of acres of grassland at a modest price if he settled the land and undertook to develop it. Others, beyond the reach of government scrutiny, simply squatted with their flocks on likely-looking land. The scale of each holding was beyond European dreams of avarice. Each settler could look out to the vacant horizon knowing that all he saw was his. To graze the unfenced land required a population of sheepherders, or, as they came to be called, boundary riders. A settler would need twelve to fifteen hands for his several hundred thousand acres, but most would live out on the "run" (sheep run) at least a day's ride from the main settlement. The hands were solitary males, a freewheeling rural proletariat, antisocial, and unconcerned with comfort or the domestic pleasures. Their leisure went in drink and gambling, and their days in a routine of lonely and backbreaking work. The main house would be spare and simple also, its roof of iron and its walls of timber laboriously transported from the coast. The garden would be primitive and the boss's recreations would be little different from his hands'. If he shared his life with a wife and children, they lived marginally on the edge of his world of male activity. There was no rain for orchards, no water for vegetable gardens, and no society for entertaining. Women worked over wood stoves in 100 degree heat and heated water for laundry over an open fire. There was little room for the culinary arts, because everyone's diet was mutton and unleavened bread, strong black tea, and spirits. The ratio of women to men was as distorted in this wave of settlement as anywhere in the settlement of the New World.
The bush ethos which grew up from making a virtue out of loneliness and hardship built on the stoic virtues of convict Australia. Settled life and domesticity were soft and demoralizing. A "real man" despised comfort and scorned the expression of emotion. The important things in life were hard work, self-sufficiency, physical endurance, and loyalty to one's male friends, one's "mates." Knowledge about nature, the care of animals, practical mechanics was respected, but speculation and the world of ideas were signs of softness and impracticality. Religion and belief in a benevolent deity were foolish because daily life demonstrated beyond doubt that the universe was hostile. The weather, the fates, the bank that held the mortgage, bushfires-disaster in some form-would get a man in the end. When disaster struck what mattered was unflinching courage and the refusal to consider despair.
Very few women could stand the isolation. When a settler prospered, his wife and children moved to a distant but comfortable rural town, where there were schools for the children and companionship for their mother. If he did not prosper, she was likely to be overwhelmed by loneliness. Nothing interrupted the relentless routine of hard labor, the anxiety of illness far from hope of help, the certainty of enervating summer heat, frosty winter cold, and the pervasive anxiety of disaster looming. Disaster could strike swiftly-some little-understood disease might wipe out the investment in the flock or the herd; a man or a child could die from snakebite, a tetanus-infected wound, a fall from a horse. Or disaster could set in slowly with the onset of drought. It was ever-present and a woman at home alone all day had time to think about it. Some took despairingly to drink, some fell into incurable depression, others told their husbands they could not endure it and left for the city.
The ideal woman was a good manager-no small task with only wood stoves, kerosene lamps, inadequate water, and the nearest store for canned goods fifty to a hundred miles away. She was toughened by adversity, laughed at her fears, knew how to fix things which broke in the house, and stifled any craving she might once have had for beauty. She could care for the sick, help fight a bushfire, aid a horse or cow in difficult labor, laugh and joke about life's absurdities and reverses, and like a man, mock any signs of weakness or lack of stoicism in her children. Everyone knew the most important gift to a child was an upbringing which would toughen him (her) up so as to be stoic and uncomplaining about life's pains and ready for its reverses. The sons of the outback made great soldiers in modern wars because they had been prepared for them since infancy. The daughters lacked such a calling.
The pattern of the year followed the seasons. If the rains came, they fell in the winter. Lambing was planned for the spring, when the grass was at its best, and the last winter showers might have left some tender growth for young lambs to nibble before their teeth developed. If seasons cooperated, the lambs were well grown, able to walk great distances for their food and water by the time the summer set in. In February, before the summer reached its peak, the lambs were shorn, and the faces and withers of the grown sheep were trimmed so that flies could not infest the places where sweat and urine soiled their fleeces. In June, in midwinter, when it was less harmful to move the animals over distances and hold them penned in yards, the grown sheep were brought to a shearing shed and shorn. If there had been an uninterrupted supply of nourishment through the year, their fleece would be seven inches thick, unstained by dust, and carrying an unbroken staple that meant it could be easily combed to spin the finest yarn. If the land they grazed did not carry enough herbage throughout the year, the staple of their fleeces would show a break to mark the point where the food supply had faltered. When the staple was broken it could not be so easily combed, and the yarn it produced, being of less high quality, sold for less. If there were too many breaks it might not repay the cost of producing it.
Excerpted from The Road from Coorain by Jill Ker Conway. Copyright © 1990 by Jill Ker Conway. Excerpted by permission of Vintage, a division of Random House LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
About the Book
The questions, discussion topics, and author biography that follow are intended to enhance your group's reading of Jill Ker Conway's The Road from Coorain. We hope they will aid your understanding of the many rich themes that make up Conway's story of her youth in mid-century Australia.
About the Guide
Conway recounts the successive phases of her early life: her childhood on a remote sheep station, her teenage years in suburban Sydney, her education at the University of Sydney, and her decision to become a historian and to leave Australia for the United States. Her own coming of age is set against that of her country: the British Empire is disintegrating, and as England retreats to a local rather than an international role in world affairs, Australia must set out to rediscover its own identity, not as an extension of England, but as a Pacific nation with a distinctive culture and history. Conway's search for her own identity, as a woman and as an Australian, is a complex story written in a deceptively simple narrative style.
About the Author
Jill Ker Conway was born in Hillston, New South Wales, Australia, in 1934. Her father was a sheep rancher, her mother a nurse, and Conway and her brothers were brought up in almost total isolation on Coorain, their 18,000-acre tract of land, which was eventually enlarged to 32,000 acres. With the unexpected death of her husband, on top of a devastating drought, Mrs. Ker was compelled to leave Coorain with her family for Sydney, where they led a relatively conventional middle-class life. Jill
was educated at the all-female Abbotsleigh School and the University of Sydney, where she took an honors degree in history.
Conway emigrated to the United States in 1960, and completed her Ph.D. at Harvard University in 1969. As a historian she specialized in American social and intellectual history, and in her own private intellectual concern, the history of American women. She taught at the University of Toronto from 1964 to 1975, where she eventually became vice-president; she then spent ten years as the president of Smith College, the first woman to hold that position.
Since 1985 she has been a visiting professor at M.I.T. in its Science, Technology and Society program.
1. In the first chapter, Conway writes of the "bush ethos which grew up from making a virtue out of loneliness and hardship" (p. 8). Stoicism and self- sufficiency are the ideals adopted by the outback settlers. How have those ideals shaped the Kers' lives? In what way have they been destructive to the family? Though Conway finally rejected these values, is it possible that they helped her to break away from her potentially
unproductive life and start again?
2. Conway stresses the fact that Australians of her parents' generation defined themselves as Britons and saw their own country only in British terms. They equated their national interests with England's; even their map of the world was seen from a British perspective, with nearby Japan located in the "Far East." How did this attitude shape the educational system into which Jill and her brothers were placed? How did it color their attitudes toward their native country? How did it shape the young Australians' class consciousness, in a country whose social and racial make-up was so different from contemporary England's?
3. How does Conway present her mother as a prototypical twentieth-century woman? In what way are the attitudes of Australian society to blame for the mother's deterioration from being an independent professional, a "great healer" (p. 195), to a neurotic hypochondriac? How has her simple system of values proved inadequate to the complex world of the twentieth century? To what degree do you feel that she has caused her own problems?
4. Conway compares the barriers against women that she herself encountered as she grew up with those that shaped her mother's life. Some were openly acknowledged (i.e., the inequitable wages for men and women offered in the Help Wanted ads). Some were more insidious: unspoken prejudices buried deep within the culture. How do the two women differ in the way they confront these barriers? How do their different educational backgrounds affect their points of view?
5. Conway speculates that had her parents encountered failure earlier in their lives, they might "have learned to bend a little before the harshness of fate" (p. 23). How does the disastrous drought at Coorain affect the character of Conway's father? Conway suggests that his death was a suicide. Does she acknowledge and confront his implied abandonment of her and the rest of the family?
6. "It was a comprehensible world" (p. 50), Conway writes of her early childhood on Coorain. "One saw visible results from one's labors" (p. 50). In what way does the young girl's comprehensible world turn into an incomprehensible one? What efforts does she make to confer meaning upon it? How do religious, spiritual, and intellectual systems of thought help or hinder her?
7. Conway writes that in Australia, "people distrusted intellectuals. Australians mocked anyone with 'big ideas' and found them specially laughable in women" (p. 146). But the same Australians who mocked "ideas" also had a high regard for success, inclusive of academic success. What shape do these contradictory attitudes give Australian society? How does the isolated position of Australian intellectuals, as depicted by Conway, reflect this dichotomy? The United States, like Australia, is a culture with a significant history of anti-intellectualism. How is this reflected in our own society?
8. How did Conway's experiences with professional discrimination against women bring her to a more personal realization of the fate of Australia's aboriginal people? What do her parents' use of the nardoo stones found on Coorain signify to her?
9. Mid-century Australia had an overwhelmingly white population, but this was not true of England's colonies and dominions in Asia and Africa. How does Conway's visit to newly independent Ceylon change her view of the British Empire and of the imperialist credo of white superiority? The credo is not merely racial, but cultural as well. What perspective is Conway given on her own society's culture and history by her first encounter with the wider world?
10. While the Australians willingly went to war for England, England's treatment of Australia as expendable during the Second World War dramatized the actual state of affairs. Conway knew that "it was time to give up pretenses of the old British Empire, recognize that we were a Southern Pacific nation, and begin to study and understand the peoples and countries of our part of the globe" (p. 182). How does Conway relate her own choice of vocation as a historian to her country's quest for identity? By extension, in what symbolic ways does she identify her own life with that of Australia?
11. Conway's story, like James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, ends with her acceptance of a life of exile. But unlike Joyce, she sees her exile as resulting from a series of "thorough and all-encompassing defeats" (p. 236). Is the narrative of Conway's early life really a story of defeat? Or is it perhaps a story of success? Conway felt that she had failed in several areas--in making her mother happy, in running Coorain--but were these quixotic battles, impossible to win? Do you feel, as she did, that she turned her back on her duty?
12. Jill Ker Conway has written: "The rise of democracy has enlarged the focus of interest in the lives of other people--from monarch, great general, and political leader to the ordinary person--someone like ourselves" (Written by Herself, p. vii). How does Conway shape her own story--that of an obscure, isolated young girl--into a narrative with wide social and historical implications?
13. How does Conway shape the plot of The Road from Coorain? Is it a romance, a story of material success, an odyssey, a spiritual or intellectual quest or the story of a conflict between mother and daughter?
14. Conway has written elsewhere about her environmental concerns. What is the role of nature in this narrative, and how does her own understanding of the natural world influence her intellectual development?
15. The Road from Coorain is a narrative about separation and the formation of a strongly bonded female personality. It is thus a story which runs counter to a current sentimental view of women's lives as networks of relationships. Is Conway's view persuasive?
NOTE TO TEACHERS
The Road from Coorain, which tells the story of Jill Ker Conway's childhood and youth in Australia, is one of the most extraordinary autobiographies of recent years. Written in a vivid, compelling style, it should prove particularly attractive to young American students who will be eager to compare the world Conway brings to life--foreign and exotic, yet in many ways oddly similar to their own--with the conventions and traditions of their own society.
In 1930 Jill Ker Conway's newly married parents bought the remote sheep station of Coorain. There Jill and her two elder brothers enjoyed an idyllic childhood on the prosperous and beautiful estate. But when Jill reached the age of eight, Coorain was struck by a devastating drought in which most of the Kers' sheep were lost. Jill's father died, and the grief-stricken family, overwhelmed by the series of disasters, left their beloved home and moved to the city of Sydney. There Jill attended a private girls' school and subsequently the University of Sydney, where she began what was to become a distinguished career as a historian.
As Jill grows up and discovers her own strengths, her mother, who on Coorain had seemed a tower of strength, begins a steady disintegration. As a widow, confounded by the complexities of life in urban Australia, Mrs. Ker becomes an emotional tyrant who bitterly clings to her children.
Jill Ker Conway entwines her coming-of-age story with that of her country: the British Empire is disintegrating, and as England retreats to a local rather than an international role in world affairs, Australia must set out to claim its own identity not as an extension of England but as a Pacific nation with a distinctive culture and history. Conway's search for her own identity, as a woman and as an Australian, makes for a rich and rewarding story.
The questions, exercises, and assignments that follow are designed to guide your students through The Road from Coorain and to help them to approach it both as an autobiography and as a telling commentary on a particular culture and one woman's place within it. Jill Ker Conway's narrative of the many challenges and decisions that faced her in her young life should inspire your students to make comparisons between her life and their own, and between Australian society at mid-century and their own world. The questions below test reader comprehension, suggest themes for in-depth discussion, and point the way toward more extensive reading and research. Students should be encouraged to examine their own society as closely as Conway has examined hers, and, like her, to challenge received cultural assumptions.
DISCUSSION AND WRITING
Understanding Australia and its role in the story
1. Describing the landscape of Coorain in the first chapter, Conway says "Human purposes are dwarfed by such a blank horizon" [p. 5]. What does she imply here? What effect might this landscape have upon the human beings that inhabit it?
2. The birds and animals of Australia are unlike those of any other country: "They belong to a physical and spiritual landscape which is outside the imagination of the Christian West" [p. 6]. Why do you think that Conway stresses the difference, the separateness of Australia from the West?
3. "The way of life that grew up for white settlers was unique," says Conway [p. 7]. How was this life unique? What made it different from that of any other society in the world?
4. How would you describe the "bush ethos" [p. 8] of Conway's childhood? How would you compare it with the ethos of your own community? What roles were assigned to men and to women? What did it mean, in that world, to be a "real man" [p. 8]? Is it realistic to expect people to be so stoic, to believe that "the universe [is] hostile" [p. 8]?
5. Why do so many Australians wish for the life of a sheep grazier, despite all its hardships? What makes such a life attractive?
6. What does Conway mean when she says that the soldier settlers "laughed at Mayfair accents but spoke fondly of Blighty" [p. 12]? Why do these people have mixed feelings about England? In what ways do they emulate the English, and in what ways do they stress their own difference?
7. When the Australians listened to the BBC, "they absorbed a map of the world which placed their near neighbor, Japan, in the Far East, and located distant Turkey in the Near East" [p. 14]. Which countries are actually Australia's neighbors? With which countries should Australians feel a sense of shared geography and destiny?
8. Not only Australian conservatives but those on the left, writes Conway, were mistaken about the place Australia must take in the world. "They were hostages to the worldview of the British working class, and the history of the nineteenth-century industrial revolution. Australia was different" [p. 182]. Why is it different? Why are its class conflicts different from those of Britain? What is the ANZUS Pact, and what significance should it have for Australia's relations with Britain?
Understanding the story
1. Conway describes her parents as "two natural risk takers" [p. 17]. How would you describe the characters of her parents? How are they similar and how do they differ? Which do you think is the stronger?
2. How has Mrs. Ker's character been shaped by her own parents, in Conway's opinion? What effect did her father's desertion have upon her outlook and her feelings about men? Did it prompt her to seek independence?
3. Mrs. Ker likes to tell her daughter the story of her dramatic birth [p. 27]. Why might Jill be disturbed by this story?
4. What is the nardoo stone [p. 30] upon which the Kers rest their feet? Why is its presence, and its position in the household, significant?
5. How does Mrs. Ker's way of teaching inspire a love of learning in her daughter?
6. When Jill works on the ranch with her father during the drought, she reflects that "too much is being asked of me" [p. 58]. Do you feel that this is true? Are her parents to blame for her not having had a normal childhood? Why do you think it was Jill, rather than her brothers, who fell into the role of being "the person in the family who would rise to the occasion, no matter the size of the task" [p. 58]?
7. Why does Pommy kill himself? Conway says that Pommy "came to be one of my symbols for our need for society, and of the folly of believing that we can manage our fate alone" [p. 61]. How does Conway apply the lesson of his death to her own life?
8. "One troublesome aspect of the frustration of my parents' dreams was the extent to which they transferred their ambitions to their children" [p. 65]. How does this transferral affect Jill and her brothers? Is such a transferral a common element of family life, in your experience?
9. What effect does the fall of Singapore have upon the Kers' world view? How do the events of World War II change Australian ideas? Why do the Kers consider the Labour Prime Minister John Curtin "an Australian patriot" [p. 69]?
10. Why does Mr. Ker visit Jill in her bedroom the morning of his death? Do you believe that he intended to kill himself?
11. Conway writes that some of her first lessons in feminism came from watching her mother deal with the valuation agent sent to Coorain after Mr. Ker's death [p. 74]. What did she learn from these lessons? Why is Mrs. Ker so outraged by his valuations?
12. "I did not understand the nature of the ecological disaster which had transformed my world, or that we ourselves had been agents as well as participants in our own catastrophe" [p. 82]. Whom does she mean by "we"? In what way had they been agents in the catastrophe?
13. What does Conway learn about the Australian class system from her brief stay at the local state school? What does she mean when she says, "My encounter was a classic confrontation for the Australia of my generation" [p. 94]? Why does she consider the culture represented by these students "more vital and unquestionably authentic" [p. 94] than her own? Would you agree with her? Do you believe that she made the right decision in leaving this school?
14. Why does Conway consider Miss Everett "a most unusual schoolteacher" [p. 97]? How does she differ from most Australian academics? Why is she considered subversive by her peers?
15. Does the curriculum at Abbotsleigh School strike you as absurd, or do you find it valuable? How might it have been improved? What about the school's code of morals and behavior: which elements of it do you find valuable and which do you find inappropriate?
16. Why is Mrs. Ker's "code of thrift, sobriety, and industry" [p. 109] insufficient for her new life in the city? Why is it insufficient for her children? Why do you think that Mrs. Ker is attracted to Theosophy and spiritualism?
17. Why does Conway entitle her sixth chapter "Finding the Southern Cross"?
18. What surprises does Conway discover in Ceylon (Sri Lanka)? In what ways does Ceylon, "a society of caste" [p. 131], differ from Australia? How do the attitudes of the Ceylonese differ from those with which Conway has been familiar in Australia?
19. How would you describe Mrs. Ker's relationship with her son Barry? Which of them proves to be the stronger?
20. Why does Conway entitle her seventh chapter "The Nardoo Stones"?
21. Does Conway receive encouragement to attend university? What is her mother's attitude to her wish for higher education? Is Mrs. Ker proud of her daughter's intelligence, or is she scornful--or jealous? What does it mean to be "brainy" in Australia?
22. "I felt I had no right to exist unless serving the family in some tangible way" [p. 156], writes Conway. Do you find this to be a common feeling among young girls and women in your own community? Are they encouraged to feel this way?
23. What does Conway learn about life from her friend Toni? What does she learn from Nina? How do these two friends enrich her life?
24. After reading Marx and Engels, Conway asks herself a number of questions about herself, her family, and the circumstances of her childhood [p. 170]. How would you answer these questions?
25. In what ways does Peter Stone differ from other young men Conway knows? Why do they decide to stop seeing each other?
26. What makes Conway choose her particular dissertation subject? Do you think that in deciding to write on this topic, Conway hopes to come to a greater understanding of her own life?
27. Why is Conway rejected by the Department of External Affairs? Do you think she would have been happy in such a job? What does this rejection teach her about discrimination against women? How does it affect her thoughts about Australia's aboriginal people? How does the rejection ultimately help her, make her a fuller and wiser person?
28. How does Conway's vision of her mother change during their trip to Europe? What does she herself learn from her visits to Santiago de Compostela and the Grande Chartreuse?
29. How does Conway react to her first trip to England? What does she admire about British tradition and history, and what does she reject? Why does she ultimately decide, "I was not at home here and never could be" [p. 208]?
30. "I could see," writes Conway, "that the so-called sexual liberation had asymmetrical results" [p. 221]. What does she mean by this? Just how beneficial does she feel the sexual revolution has been?
31. Why does Conway feel compelled to make the nighttime drive to Coorain, even though there are murderers on the road? Does she end up by being proud of her own bravery? What effect do the Scotsman's words have on her view of herself?
32. Why does Conway decide against a life in the bush? Why does she decide against staying in Australia? Why does she reject England as a possible home, and choose the United States?
33. How does Alec Merton expand Conway's horizons? In what way is he different from other men she has known? Why does she decide, finally, to split up with him?
34. How does Conway "violate the code of [her] forefathers" [p. 232]?
1. In the first chapter, Conway writes of the "bush ethos which grew up from making a virtue out of loneliness and hardship" [p. 8]. Stoicism and self-sufficiency are the ideals adopted by the outback settlers. How have these ideals shaped the lives of Jill's parents? In what way have they proved destructive to the family? How have they shaped Conway herself? Though she finally rejects these values, is it possible that they helped her break away from a life that could have turned out to be unhappy and unproductive?
2. "Knowledge about nature, the care of animals, practical mechanics was respected, but speculation and the world of ideas were signs of softness and impracticality" [p. 8]. What is it in the history of Australian settlement that has encouraged this way of thinking? What effect does this ethos have upon Jill's life? Does it contribute, in your opinion, to her decision to leave Australia? Can you detect similar attitudes in your own country and community?
3. Conway stresses the fact that Australians of her parents' generation defined themselves as Britons and saw their own country only in British terms, equating their national interests with England's. How did this attitude shape the educational system Jill and her brothers experienced? How did it affect their attitudes toward Australia and its native people? How did it mold their class consciousness?
4. Conway presents her mother as a complex character, with good and bad aspects. Which of her characteristics do you find positive? Which are negative? How does Conway present her mother's situation as being typical of a twentieth-century woman? How far should the attitudes of Australian society be seen as causing her mother's deterioration from being an independent professional, a "great healer" [p. 195], to a neurotic hypochondriac? To what degree do you feel that she has caused her own problems?
5. As women, both Conway and her mother encountered barriers against their success. Some were openly acknowledged (i.e., the inequitable wages for men and women offered in the Help Wanted ads). Some were more insidious: unspoken prejudices buried deep within the culture. How do the two women differ in the way they confront these barriers? How, in your opinion, does each woman's education affect her point of view?
6. Conway speculates that had her parents encountered failure earlier in their lives, they might "have learned to bend a little before the harshness of fate" [p. 23]. How does the disastrous drought at Coorain affect the character of Mr. Ker? Conway suggests that his death may have been a suicide. Is she angry about this? Do you feel that she looks on her father's death as a kind of abandonment? If not, why not?
7. Of her early childhood on Coorain, Conway writes that "it was a comprehensible world. One saw visible results from one's labors" [p. 50]. At what point does this comprehensible world turn into an incomprehensible world? What efforts does the young girl make to confer meaning on it? How would you relate the terms "comprehensible" or "incomprehensible" to the society in which you have grown up?
8. Conway writes that in Australia, "people distrusted intellectuals. Australians mocked anyone with `big ideas' and found them specially laughable in a woman" [p. 146]. But the same Australians who mocked "ideas" also had a high regard for academic success. How can you explain this contradiction? How does the isolated position of Australian intellectuals, as depicted by Conway, reflect this truth? Do you find evidence for a similar anti-intellectualism in the United States?
9. Conway experienced the humiliation of being discriminated against as a woman. How did this bring her to more personal realization of the fate of Australia's aboriginal people? What does her parents' use of the nardoo stone found on Coorain signify to her?
10. Mid-century Australia had an overwhelmingly white population, but this was not true of England's colonies and dominions in Asia and Africa. What kind of society does Conway encounter when she visits newly independent Ceylon? How does this visit change her view of the British Empire and of the imperialist credo of white superiority? The credo is not merely racial, but cultural as well. Does Conway's first encounter with the wider world affect her perspective on her own society's culture, history and attitudes?
11. While the Australians willingly fought for the British Empire in both world wars, as Conway describes it, England treated Australia as though it were expendable. Conway knew that "it was time to give up the pretenses of the old British Empire, recognize that we were a Southern Pacific nation, and begin to study and understand the peoples and countries of our part of the globe" [p. 182]. How does Conway relate her own decision to be a historian to her country's quest for its own identity? How does Conway symbolically identify her own life with that of Australia?
12. Conway's story ends with her acceptance of a life of exile, resulting from a series of "thorough and all-encompassing defeats" [p. 236]. Do you find that the narrative of Conway's early life is really a story of defeat? Or could it be seen as a story of success? Conway felt that she had failed in several areas: she had not kept her mother from being unhappy; she was not emotionally equal to the lonely life of running Coorain. But might those have been quixotic battles, impossible to win? Do you feel, as she did, that she turned her back upon her duty?
13. How would you describe The Road from Coorain? Is it a romance, a story of material success, an odyssey, a spiritual or intellectual quest or the story of a conflict between mother and daughter?
14. Conway is deeply concerned with nature and the environment. What is the role of nature in this narrative? How does the Australian landscape of Coorain shape the characters of the human beings who inhabit it? What impact have the settlers had upon the Australian outback, "one of the most delicately balanced environments on the planet" [p. 10]?
BEYOND THE BOOK
1. Research the history of the British Empire. Of what did it consist during the years that Conway lived in Australia? (A good place to start is with James Morris's Pax Britannica trilogy; focus on the last volume and, in the first volumes, the chapters dealing with Australia). How many countries were ruled by England at that time? How different were the societies represented within the Empire? Why did some societies, such as Australia and Canada, remain loyal to Great Britain while others rebelled?
2. Conway talks of Australians, on ANZAC Day, remembering the heroism of their troops at Gallipoli [p. 183]. Gallipoli was a battle in World War I in which many Australians lost their lives. Look up this battle in an encyclopedia or in a history of the First World War. What were the actions of the British leaders and officers who conducted the action? Why might the experience of Gallipoli, as Conway suggests, cause Australia to mistrust and resent Great Britain?
3. Research the nature of aboriginal society. How did the fate of the aborigines resemble that of the American Indians? In what way did their situations differ? Write a short essay comparing the two situations.
4. As a young girl, Conway was greatly impressed when she read T. S. Eliot's long poem The Waste Land: "It was great poetry about a landscape I knew." Can you find an example of poetry or fiction that describes your own landscape and world to your satisfaction? Write a short essay about the work, and what it means in relation to your own world.
5. Three of the books that help Conway in her voyage of self-discovery are The Way of All Flesh by Samuel Butler, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce, and The Positive and Negative Aspects of the Mother Archetype by Carl Jung. Read one of these books. Write an essay about the meaning the book would have had for Conway; and also about what the book has told you about the nature of family life and the importance of independence from the family.
6. Look at an atlas of the world. Who are Australia's closest neighbors? With what countries does she share national interests dictated by geography and security considerations? Now look at the United States. The United States, like Europe, has traditionally identified with Europe. Does this make sense to you, in terms of our geographical position? Who are our closest neighbors?
OTHER TITLES OF INTEREST
Maya Angelou, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings; Julia Blackburn, Daisy Bates in the Desert; Jill Ker Conway, True North; Robyn Davidson, Tracks; Isak Dinesen, Out of Africa; George Eliot, The Mill on the Floss; Janet Frame, An Angel at My Table; Miles Franklin, My Brilliant Career; Carolyn Heilbrun, Writing a Woman's Life; Elspeth Huxley, The Flame Trees of Thika; James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; Maxine Hong Kingston, The Woman Warrior; Beryl Markham, West With the Night; James V. Marshall, Walkabout; Mervyn John Meggitt, Desert People; James Morris, the Pax Britannica trilogy; Gloria Steinem, Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions; Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own.
ABOUT THIS GUIDE
This teacher's guide was written by Peter Trachtenberg. Peter Trachtenberg has taught writing and literature at the New York University School of Continuing Education, the Johns Hopkins University School of Continuing Education, and the School of Visual Arts.
Copyright © 1994 by VINTAGE BOOKS