Several factors delayed and greatly hampered the development of an Italian medium and heavy tank during Rommel's Desert War in World War II. The first was the strategic stance of the country, focussed on a war against neighbouring countries such as France and Yugoslavia, and ill-prepared for a war in the Western Desert. Since these European countries bordered with Italy in mountainous areas, light tanks were preferred as these were deemed much more suitable for the narrow roads and bridges of the Alps. The failure to develop an effective operational plan for North Africa was another factor behind the failed development of an Italian medium tank, along with the lack of communication between the War Department and the Ministry of the Colonies, which not only had actual command over the Italian forces deployed in the Italian colonies of Libya and in Italian East Africa, but was also responsible for developing their defence plans. Furthermore, the development of the medium tank was hampered by the limited number of Italian industries, whose production was also heavily fragmented - hence the SPA-developed engines, the Fiat and Ansaldo hulls and armour, the Breda and army ordnance guns. All these factors delayed the development of the first prototype of an Italian medium tank - the M 11 - which would only appear in 1937 and did not enter production until 1939.
Inspired by its British and French counterparts, the M 11 / 39 was a 11-ton medium tank chiefly intended for use as an infantry tank, with its main gun (a 37/40 gun) mounted in a casemate in the hull and its small turret armed only with two machine guns. Actual production was limited to only 100 samples, 76 of which were sent to Libya and the other 24 to Eastern Africa, as production of the turret-gun-armed M 13 had started in the meantime. In June 1940, when Italy entered the war, her armoured inventory numbered fewer than 1,500 light tanks (including the obsolete Fiat 3000) and the 100 newly built M 11 medium tanks, divided amongst three armoured divisions, three cavalry groups and several independent tank battalions. Unsurprisingly, without a tank school, the Italian armoured force lacked the necessary training and experience in the use of tanks and AFVs, and with the tanks lacking radio equipment, there was a widespread absence of tactical and technical knowledge which, along with the limited effectiveness and numbers of the available tanks, made the perfect recipe for the defeats to come.
"...continues where the author's fascinating Italian Light Tanks: 1919–45 ended."
--David L. Veres, www.cybermodeler.com (January 2013)
"In line with other books in this series, the authors cover the development and construction of the various medium tanks and the semovente from which they were derived. We get to look at their strengths and weaknesses as well as how they did in battle, both with the Italian and German army. It is surprising how many actually survived the war long enough to be placed in various museums and other display venues. It all makes for a book on a subject about which few enthusiasts are conversant. It is a superb look at these vehicle and how they were used in combat."
--Scott Van Aken, www.modelingmadness.com (January 2013)
“…offers a fine survey that considers the evolution of Italian armored units during World War II, and is a pick for any specialty collection concerned about the armaments of the war. From how these Italian units experienced disaster on the battlefield to how they returned with innovations that led to victories, this provides a well-detailed survey recommended for any military collection.”
--The Midwest Book Review (March 2013)