The death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC threw the Macedonians into confusion; there was no capable heir, and no clear successor among the senior figures in Alexander's circle. Initial attempts to preserve the unity of Alexander's conquests gave way to a period of bloody and prolonged warfare (322-275 BC), and the break-up of this glittering but momentary empire.
Macedonia, the heartland of Alexander's dominions, was ruled first by the heirs of Antipater, Alexander's regent, and then by the descendents of Alexander's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ('the One-Eyed'). For well over a century the largely mercenary armies of Alexander's successors imposed their influence in matters of military costume, kit, doctrine and tactics over the whole of the Near East, while absorbing local military practices.
After Rome's decisive defeat of Carthage in 202 BC and the subsequent Roman dominance over the Western Mediterranean, Macedonia came under increasing pressure from the Romans. Three wars between the two powers culminated in the Roman victory at Pydna in 168 BC, which marked the final destruction of Alexander's empire and established Roman authority over the Near East.
Drawing upon a wide array of archaeological and written sources and written by a noted authority on the Hellenistic period, this survey of the organisation, battle history and appearance of the armies of Alexander's successors is lavishly illustrated with specially commissioned full-colour artwork. It is an essential resource for all those interested in the development of warfare in the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East in the turbulent centuries following the death of Alexander.
Macedonian Armies after Alexander 323-168 BC by Nicholas Sekunda