From Chapter 3: "Tsaddik: The Righteous One"
In the sources of the Jewish tradition, the religious ideals of Judaism have crystallized around three ideal human types that carry special significance: the Tsaddik,
the righteous man; the Talmid Hakham,
the scholar of sacred texts; and the Hasid,
the pious person . . .
In classical rabbinic usage the righteous person, like the scholar, is viewed with great sobriety. He is the one who strives to fulfill the Law and who succeeds, at the very least, in making his merits outnumber his transgressions. There is often a legalistic nuance involved, whereby "righteous" has the specific sense of one found innocent by a court of law. "A man is judged by the majority of his deeds"--the righteous man being the one who passes the test of this judgment. Even one who is completely successful in meeting the demands of the Torah would be considered no more than a righteous man. The attainment of this level requires no more than a decision of the will and exertion of human effort; no special grace is necessary. It is an ideal accessible to all. . . .
How did the notion of the Tsaddik
change in Jewish mysticism? Surprisingly enough, the legal element of judgment or law was eliminated from this concept. The Righteous One is no longer the righteous judge; in the Kabbalah, God as Judge constitutes an entirely different aspect from that of God as the Righteous One; they reflect two different sides of the Godhead. The newness of this concept is most evident when the Kabbalists discuss not the earthly righteous but the Tsaddik
as a symbol of an aspect of God; it is a particular one of the ten Sefiroth,
generally the next to last. For the Kabbalists the Sefiroth
are--to put it succinctly--identified with the totality of the manifest or the active Godhead; they express the fullness of His omnipotence and all the aspects of His divine nature. Each of these potencies appears in a wealth of symbolic representations, but as different as they may be, the most important symbols of each individual Sefirah are inherently interconnected. The symbols in which God appears as the Tsaddik
are thus vastly illuminating for our problem and deserving of close analysis. The writings of the earliest Kabbalists, in particular, from Sefer ha-Bahir
to the Zohar, shed much light on this topic. The hypostatization of the notion of the earthly righteous man into a symbol of the corresponding Sefirah
introduced several of his characteristics into the symbolism of this Sefirah,
which in turn influenced the understanding of its earthly representative. In the Kabbalah the Tsaddik
is first and foremost a mystical symbol, deriving from many different sources; he is also the image of the perfect human being, an image determined and fashioned by this symbolism. Molded in this way by Kabbalistic Musar (ethical-homiletical) literature, the Tsaddik
is a constitutive and decisive element in the Hasidic movement.
Excerpted from On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead by Gershom Scholem. . Excerpted by permission of Schocken, a division of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.