Chapter 1"To Die Gallantly"
On August 15, 1939, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, chief of the Kriegsmarine
, directed his staff, the OKM, to send a war alert to Karl Donitz, commander of the German submarine force. The message stated that all senior submarine staff officers and U-boat commanders were to report for a "reunion" on August 19 at Donitz's headquarters on the submarine tender Hecht
, moored at a naval pier in Kiel. The word "reunion" was a coded order to deploy the German submarine force fore war--merely four days hence.
Donitz rushed back from leave the following day. Others concerned reported on board Hecht
that day or the next in high excitement. When all had gathered, Donitz outlined the complicated geopolitical situation that had developed, the perils entailed, and the submarine war plans.
The Fuhrer, Adolf Hitler, had definitely made up his mind to invade Poland. The date had been moved forward from September 1 to August 26. Great Britain and France had pledged to come to Poland's aid. Although Hitler did not believe the British or French would fight, Donitz thought otherwise: War with those nations was not only possible, but probable. There was a further complication. To avoid the prospect of a two-front war, Hitler was attempting to negotiate a nonaggression pact with the Soviet Union. But, so far, Joseph Stalin was foot-dragging. Conceivably, Moscow might reject Hitler's overtures and align with London and Paris and pledge support for Warsaw. The Kriegsmarine
therefore had to be prepared for numerous, dizzying contingencies: war with Poland alone; war with Poland assisted by Great Britain and France; war with Poland assisted by Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union; war with Poland assisted only by the Soviet Union.
was by no means prepared for a naval war with Great Britain and France. Notwithstanding the naval arms-limitations treaties of the 1920s and 1930s, those nations combined had an awesome array of surface ships: twenty-two battleships and battle cruisers, seven aircraft carriers, eighty-three cruisers, and countless destroyers, plus seven new battleships and eight carriers under construction. Against that the Kriegsmarine
had two battleships (Bismarck
), and one carrier (Graf Zeppelin
) under construction, two battle cruisers (Gneisenau
) in commission but not combat-ready, three "pocket" battleships (Deutschland
, Admiral Graf Spee
, Admiral Scheer
), of which only two were combat-ready, eight conventional cruisers, and about twenty destroyers in various stages of readiness. Altogether the Allies enjoyed a superiority of ten-to-one in surface ships.
Great Britain and France likewise enjoyed a superiority in numbers of ocean-going submarines. Great Britain had about fifty in commission, France about seventy, for a total of about 120. Against that the Kriegsmarine
had twenty-seven. Not all the Allied submarines were of good quality or combat-ready, but the same was true of the German submarines. Of the twenty-seven oceangoing German boats in commission, two large ones, U-25
, were experimental and not really suitable for combat and five were brand new or in shipyards for extended refit or overhaul, leaving only twenty fully (or nearly) ready for war on August 19.
In addition, the Germans had commissioned thirty pint-sized, 250-ton submarines--the so-called ducks. The ducks were used principally for basic or advanced training purposes, but they had three torpedo tubes and could carry six torpedoes or nine mines. Therefore all but one duck (U-11
), which had been permanently detached for experimental work, could be assigned to limited combat roles in the North Sea or Baltic Sea. About eighteen of the twenty-nine ducks were fully (or nearly) ready for combat on August 19.
war plan was designed to make the best of the several contingencies. The two combat-ready "pocket" battleships, Admiral Graf Spee
, each with one supply ship, were to slip secretly to sea and take up waiting positions in the North and South Atlantic. Sixteen of the twenty combat-ready oceangoing submarines were to occupy waiting positions off the Atlantic coasts of Great Britain and France and off the Strait of Gibraltar. Seven ducks were to take up waiting positions in the North Sea. Should Great Britain and France declare war, the "pocket" battleships and submarines in the Atlantic were to operate offensively against the maritime forces of those nations; the submarines in the North Sea, offensively and defensively. The remaining combat-ready naval forces, including four oceangoing submarines and eleven ducks, were to operate offensively in the Baltic Sea against the tiny Polish Navy (five submarines, two destroyers, several minelayers) or, if necessary, the more formidable Soviet Navy.
That was the plan. Should Great Britain and France declare war, Raeder had no illusions about the outcome. The best that the men of the Kriegsmarine
could do, he wrote in his memoir, was to "go down fighting" and "show that they knew how to die gallantly."
The "pocket" battleships and submarines deployed in secrecy per plan, August 19 to August 23. The Admiral of Graf Spee
, her supply ship Altmark
, and fourteen oceangoing U-boats loaded with torpedoes sailed on the night of the 19th. Two other oceangoing U-boats, delayed in the shipyards, sailed on the nights of August 22 and 23. The Deutschland
and her supply ship Westerwald
sailed on the night of the 23rd. That same night the North Sea U-boat force (seven ducks) and the Baltic Sea U-boat force (three oceangoing boats and eleven ducks) sailed to waiting positions. In total, thirty-four of the fifty-seven commissioned U-boats (65 percent) deployed: sixteen to the Atlantic, seven to the North Sea, and eleven to the Baltic Sea.
Hitler's negotiations with Stalin, meanwhile, proceeded at a maddeningly slow pace. On August 20 Stalin agreed to a preliminary trade agreement, but this hardly satisfied Hitler. That day Hitler intervened directly, cabling Stalin to suggest that he receive the German Foreign Minister von Ribbentrop, who would have full powers to sign a treaty on behalf of Germany. Stalin agreed to see von Ribbentrop on August 23 and that same night, to Hitler's immense relift, Stalin signed the pact. The published treaty (binding for twenty years) specified that neither Germany nor Russia would attack the other or support a third party, or a coalition, in an attack on one of the other. The unpublished protocols and agreements doomed Poland and the Baltic States. Germany and the Soviet Union would invade Poland and divide that nation roughly in half at the Vistual River. The Soviet Union was to exercise "influence" over Finland, Estonia, and Latvia, while Germany was to exercise "influence" over Lithuania.
D day for the invasion of Poland remained fixed for August 26. But on the day before, Hitler received several pieces of news that gave him pause. The British announced ratification of a formal mutual assistance pact with Poland, which iterated in no uncertain terms Britain's determination to fight for Poland. The French ambassador called on Hitler to make it crystal clear that France would do likewise. A letter arrived from Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, stating that Italy was not prepared for war and could not immediately go to war against Great Britain and France unless Hitler provided Italy with enormous quantities of military supplies. As a result of these developments, Hilter postponed the invasion from August 26 to its original date, September 1, gaining time for another attempt to negotiate Great Britain and France into neutrality.
Excerpted from Hitler's U-Boat War by Clay Blair. Copyright © 2000 by Clay Blair. Excerpted by permission of Modern Library, a division of Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.