Chapter 1 Introduction The Invention of Fascism Images of Fascism Strategies Where Do We Go from Here?
Chapter 2 Creating Fascist Movements The Immediate Background Intellectual, Cultural, and Emotional Roots Long-Term Preconditions Precursors Recruitment Understanding Fascism by Its Origins
Chapter 3 Taking Root Successful Fascisms —(1) The Po Valley, Italy, 1920–22 —(2) Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, 1928–33 An Unsuccessful Fascism: France, 1924–40 Some Other Unsuccessful Fascisms Comparisons and Conclusions
Chapter 4 Getting Power Mussolini and the “March on Rome” Hitler and the “Backstairs Conspiracy” What Did Not Happen: Election, Coup d’Etat, Solo Triumph Forming Alliances What Fascists Offered the Establishment The Prefascist Crisis Revolutions after Power: Germany and Italy Comparisons and Alternatives
Chapter 5 Exercising Power The Nature of Fascist Rule: “Dual State” and Dynamic Shapelessness The Tug-of-War between Fascists and Conservatives The Tug-of-War between Leader and Party The Tug-of-War between Party and State Accommodation, Enthusiasm, Terror The Fascist “Revolution”
Chapter 6 The Long Term: Radicalization or Entropy? What Drives Radicalization? Trying to Account for the Holocaust Italian Radicalization: Internal Order, Ethiopia, Salò Final Thoughts
Chapter 7 Other Times, Other Places Is Fascism Still Possible? Western Europe since 1945 Post-Soviet Eastern Europe Fascism Outside Europe
Chapter 8 What Is Fascism? Conflicting Interpretations Boundaries What Is Fascism?